A first pact that cooled tensions in an election year follows months of escalating tariffs and a trade war that seemed never to stop. In April 2018, China announced that it was abolishing laws requiring global automakers and shipbuilders to work through government partners.  The President of China and Secretary General Xi Jinping reaffirmed these commitments and reaffirmed their commitment to increase imports, reduce restrictions on foreign spies in production and extend protection to intellectual property, all of which are central issues in Trump`s complaints about their trade imbalance.  Trump thanked Xi for his “friendly words on tariffs and car barriers” and “his education” on intellectual property and technology transfer. “We`re going to make great progress together!” the president added.  In an article in Forbes in April 2018, Harry G. Broadman, a former U.S. negotiator, said he agreed with the Trump administration`s basic position that the Chinese do not respect fair, transparent and market-based rules for world trade, but he opposed his means of unilaterally enforcing tariffs and said the government should instead adopt a coalition-based approach.  Chile`s Deputy Trade Minister Rodrigo Yanez told CNBC: “It is very important for Chile that a trade agreement between the United States and China is soon to be signed.”  Lawrence J. Lau, a Hong Kong economics professor, argues that one of the main causes of the trade war is the growing struggle between China and the United States for global economic and technological dominance. He says it also reflects the rise of populism, isolationism, nationalism and protectionism almost everywhere in the world, including the United States.  Former Vice President Joe Biden said, “As Trump wages a damaging and unpredictable trade war with no real strategy, China is positioning itself to lead the world in the field of renewable energy.”  According to Politifact`s articles, most traditional economists have said that “consumers are the main victims of tariffs” and most economists have said they bear “more risks than benefits.”  Almost all economists who responded to the Associated Press and Reuters polls said that Trump`s tariffs would do more harm than good to the U.S. economy, and some economists have argued in favor of alternative ways for the United States to address its trade deficit with China.
     The trade war between China and the United States has weighed on the economies of both countries. Tensions appear to have led to a slowdown in U.S. manufacturing. Chinese exports to the United States have collapsed. After the first phase of a trade agreement in December 2019, Mary E. Lovely of the Peterson Institute for International Economics and a professor at Syracuse University said the ceasefire was “good news” for the U.S. economy, while expressing optimism that the talks would help address China`s “unfair” intellectual property practices.   More than 600 companies and trade associations, including manufacturers, retailers and technology companies, wrote to Trump in mid-2019 asking him to abolish tariffs and end the trade war, saying that the increase in tariffs would have “significant, negative and long-term impacts on American businesses. , farmers, families and the U.S. economy.”  A 2019 statement by the National Manufacturers Association set a goal of its opposition to the trade war and called for the creation of a new structure for U.S.-China trade relations that would eliminate China`s unfair trade practices and allow U.S. producers to compete.  A Politico 2018 article documented the partnership